700 x 80 WWI - 1:33 - Spoked Wheel Project

Discussion in 'Gallery & Designs' started by Gil, Jan 19, 2007.

  1. Bowdenja

    Bowdenja Active Member

    OK Gil............. this really is an ad for your new Model Tool Jig Company right?

    Truely you would have a customer in me! Great tut.......... and one day when things get un-krazy around the house(it will be in the new house because the city want to run the new road additions through my living room) I have got to build me some of those neato jig fixtures you come up with!

    I will be saving this PDF Chris!

  2. paper warrior

    paper warrior Member

    Hey! You stole Josve's shrink-ray!
  3. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Onward! Upward!

    Hi Guys,

    Wow, Eminent Domain through your living room! Hope you're getting a good deal out of it. The housing market is in your favor so it's time for wheeling and dealing (kinda sorry about the pun). About Johnny's shrink ray..., I started lacing a wheel with the prototype of the one showed in this thread and realized half way through that I wasn't wearing my Optivisor. I have a feeling that there's going to be a surge of WWI models with wire wheels on them which will make us all happier card modelers...,

    I've been thinking about doing early motorcycle models coupled with a technique for building long, small diameter paper tubing.

    I'll post all the necessary drawings at the end of the tutorial as an editable .PDF file so everyone can lace-up wheels to their hearts content.

    Have to finish this tutorial first though...,

  4. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Lacing, The Main Event

    After putting all the effort into designing jigs and fixtures it's time to see if they work as envisioned.

    One tire half is mounted onto the Lacing Fixture with the alignment mark noted and a corresponding mark is put on one of the "horns" of the fixture for latter referrence. The hub is mounted on the centering pin so that the first layer of lacing contacts the larger radius of the hub when laced. The hub will be adjusted latter. The hub must move easily on the centering shaft.

  5. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Lacing the Spokes

    A 4 foot length of 2 pound test nylon mono filament fishing line is prepared by passing it between two layers of 220 grit sandpaper at least a half dozen times. This removes surface residues and roughens the surface for a better glue hold. It also makes the line easier to see.

    Several small strips of masking tape are cut to hold the ends of the mono filament on the backside of the Lacing Fixture. One end of the mono filament is taped to the backside and the lacing begun as diagrammed below. The pattern is simple and repetitive. The first layer is finished after a five pattern repetition.


    The hub is carefully pulled up until the lacings "snap" down onto the hubs axle. The hub shouldn't be pulled up too far or the lacings will snap onto the centering hub. The hub is now pushed down toward the bottom of the fixture to "set" the first layer spoke angle.

    The second layer is begun beginning in the empty slots of the Lacing Fixture following the same pattern repetition as the first lacing layer only that the mono filament is now brought up to the shoulder of the hub and back down to the fixtures horn. The pattern is continued until the last spoke is laced. A piece of masking secures the free end of the mono filament line to the back of the Lacing Fixture.

  6. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Joining the Tire Halves

    Gap filling Cyanoacrylate (CA) glue is carefully spread on the surface of the bottom tire half. A paper towel is used to blot the cement away from the inner aspect to avoid CA squirting out around the "spokes". The CA is "worked" around the mono filaments with a sharpened bamboo skewer to insure that they're covered in glue.

    The other tire half is aligned with the reference marks on the bottom half. The inner radius of the tire halves is the important alignment reference.

  7. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Clamping the Tire Halves Together

    The tire halves are now clamped together essentially forming the wheel structure.

    Clamping force should be firm but not overdone to the point of deforming the tire halves. Below is shown a clamp-up using an earlier design for annular distribution of clamping force. The CA needs time to setup thoroughly and peeking is not recommended.

  8. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Hot Out of the Mold

    Removing the clamps reveals a spoked wheel. Caution in handling it is recommended. The lacing at the hubs still requires gluing with CA to set the wheel. Before removing the wheel from the fixture the mono filament lacing is glued to the top hub with thin CA.

    The wheel is carefully removed from the Lacing Fixture by cutting the mono filament lines on the outside aspect of the tire. The assembly is then mounted on the drill shaft that was used to wind the hub. The wheel is checked for 90 degree orthogonality with the drill shaft. The wheel is adjusted on the hub till it exhibits no "wobble" when spun. Thin CA is applied to the other side of the hub-spoke intersection and allowed to dry thoroughly. The wheel can now be mounted on a Dremel tool arbor for final sanding and finishing.

  9. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    First Protype Wheel with Spoked Wheel Technique

    The wheel below is the first test prototype of the present Lacing Fixture and assorted building aids. The rims still need a little tuning as does the finishing process which I'll be covering over the next several days.


  10. eatcrow2

    eatcrow2 Member

    Absolutely outstanding.. Great set of photos showing the steps.
  11. Clashster

    Clashster Member

    Great tutorial! What a amazing idea and great follow through! Thanks!

  12. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Eric Goedkoop Style Tires

    After thinking about the tires I decided to try the "wound" style tires as shown in an earlier tutorial on spoked wheels by Eric Goedkoop. CAD was used to draw the profiles of the spirals which split them into two pieces to fit on letter size paper. Each was then split in the two giving the two tire halves. These were wrapped on a modified "Tire Turning Jig" with white glue and allowed to dry. They were then filled with a homemade acrylic magic model filler and sanded on the tire turning jig using Aleene's Tack-It Over-and-Over to tack the tire half on the tool for sanding. The result was then painted flat black.

    A wheel was quickly laced from the tire halves in and effort to see what it would look like. The result is shown below (the wheel sits on the card stock from which the tire wrap strips were cut).

    This method is an improvement over the laminated slab style tire used on the earlier version. It is very rigid and the wrapped layers bite into the mono filament spokes when glued and clamped. WWI tires tend to be more like bicycle tires exhibiting a small section profile making them difficult to model (at this scale). The wrapping method takes care of maintaining an accurate profile but does require cutting and working with thin strips of 0.22 mm paper. I found that the after the first one the second was a lot easier.

    The last section will cover the split rims.

    Till Next, -Gil

  13. Gil

    Gil Active Member


    Hi All,

    A few more improvements have slipped in before the rim design section.

    Eric's style of wheels uses a straight forward and simple lacing pattern which is good for not getting confused when the lacing is being done (it's easy to get confused during this step). The problem with this design method is that the hub inner diameter needs to be fairly large in order to keep the mono filament "spokes" from slipping off the hub and is out of scale. The solution to these problems is a hub design which mimics the full scale design and a change in the lacing pattern to avoid the slippage.

    It also dawned on me that the spoke "offset" or conical form difference between the outside and inside of the spoking pattern can be set by a hub inner shaft extension that holds the hub in a fixed position on the Lacing Fixture. The results of these changes are shown below.

    I think I'll back track a little to cover the new lacing pattern and hub design before continuing on to covering the split rims.

    Till Next...,


  14. EricGoedkoop

    EricGoedkoop Member

    Following with interest, Gil.
  15. gippolot

    gippolot Member

    Fantastic stuff Gil.

    The ideas you are coming up with are really inspiring.
  16. Gil

    Gil Active Member


    Eric, Glad you tuned in. Hope you're enjoying the thread. Goodness knows, a lot of it is directly borrowed from your original thread which launched this one.

    Gipolot, Makes it worthwhile to know that it's helping others that have an interest in this genre. As you probably already realize it has application to a wide variety of wheeled vehicles.

    It wasn't till the last few days that everything literally fell into place. Something that is quite rare but is really great when it does occur. I started out with pre-conceived notions based upon success at a larger scale. This proved very disappointing when it was found that scaling down wasn't going to work the same way. This meant having to start over again. Luckily I re-read Eric's posts and Harry Woodmans treatise on the subject. This provided the necessary new idea. Actually it's an old idea just new as applied to paper. Eric used a split rim then covered it with a wound tire. I just reversed the load bearing element and Voila! It's what you see covered in the later part of the thread. So the trip has been the usual; panic just before you get there, don't ask for directions, forge on ahead and hope you get lucky! ...,

    The effort now is to produce a really first class piece worthy of mention, then to arrange and explain the technique so that it can be easily reproduced (actually this is the hard part).

    Best regards, -Gil
  17. Sticks-N-Stones

    Sticks-N-Stones New Member

    I love spoked wheels! Real eye-candy on a model. Have you considered making nipples where the spoke meets the rim? You could roll a tiny strip of paper around the filament then slide it down to the rim with tweezers. Thanks for the nice thread.
  18. Sticks-N-Stones

    Sticks-N-Stones New Member

    Here's a pic of a 1/8th metal wheel with nipples fabricated from aluminum tape.

    Attached Files:

  19. Gil

    Gil Active Member

    Thought About It

    Sticks-N-Stones, I thought about that but the scale is so small that rolled vellum would still be too large and would look out of scale. Right now my effort is toward getting a handle on building two halves of a tire that closely match. It has nuances that I am now learning to appreciate. The Spoked Wheel Development is at the point where the art is accomplished but needs to be fine tuned.

    Beautiful 1:8 scale Dr. I !

  20. Gil

    Gil Active Member


    The problem with the tires being non-symmetrical was solved by dry winding them without any glue except where the two pieces join and then just a dab to secure one end and to start the other. The windings were then pushed down to conform to the backing plate before the entire piece was coated with PVA and brushed with a moistened paint brush till most of the excess PVA was removed. The piece was then allowed to dry (on top of an electric space heater in my shop). The tire winding fixture was then disassembled, the bottom backing plate removed, followed by application of PVA and wet brushing it in. The piece was set aside to dry. The PVA flash was sanded off and the "end" steps sanded. Note that all fixtures that contact PVA are covered with stretched on plastic wrap as a release.

    The previous assembly process covered the wound tire with PVA followed by "smushing" it with a burnishing tool caused the tire to be deformed. A light touch follwed by a hardening process proved to be a more successful method.

    The rims are a different story, needless to say, have been an interesting learning experience. The design was simplified into a one piece wrap instead of the original two piece design. The wound piece was removed from the form and both sides sanded true, the center marked then placed back on the form and split with a straight razor blade.

    I realize that this is a little out of sequence for a tutorial but is quite normal for a "Development" thread, which this is.

    Results of all these changes are shown below.

    Till Next...,



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